Cyanobacteria are capable of producing different structural groups of cyanobacterial toxins, namely cyclic peptides (microcystins, nodularins) which target hepatic function; alkaloids (anatoxins, saxitoxins) that target the nervous system, inflammatory agents (lyngbyatoxin-a and aplysiatoxin) which induce skin lesions and endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) which are cutaneous and gastrointestinal irritants.  Additive, synergistic and/or antagonistic effects among different classes of cyanobacterial metabolites, as well as interactions with other toxic stressors such as metals or persistent organic pollutants can impact on the severity of toxicity.

Who Should Enrol


Course Design

Blended Course

Course Highlights

CPD Points

Learning Outcomes

Continued Professional Development


Test: Question and Answer


South African Veterinary Council (SAVC)

1 CPD Point



Pass the test with 80% - Retries allowed: 3

1.0 General Point

1.0 Max Points

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Blue-green algae (cyanobacterial) toxicity in animals